TRIVSEL OG PRODUKTIVITET I FILOSOFISK PERSPEKTIV

Publisert: 14-01-2011

Her vil jeg ta opp 6  grunnleggende begreper som til sammen utgjør et viktig bakteppe for forståelsen av  moderne uttrykk som jobbtilfredshet,  forpliktende organisasjonsengasjement, prestasjon, mestringsopplevelse og flyt, og for sammenhenger disse har med produktivitet i arbeidslivet.

Et fellesbegrep for slike positive dimensjoner i arbeidsopplevelsen er arbeidsglede eller jobblykke. Begrepet lykke har vært svært mye diskutert innen mange fag og filosofiske skoleretninger i århundrer, for ikke å si tusner. Bak både disse diskusjonene og de moderne organisasjonspsykologiske begrepene jeg nettop nevnte ligger noen klassiske forklaringer på hva lykke er og hvordan den kan oppnås:

1)     Hedonisme I dag er det særlig den engelske filosofen, sosialøkonomen og statsviteren John Stuart Mill som forbindes med dette. Han levde fra 1806 til 1873. Mill mente at lykke er å oppnå behag og unngå ubehag og smerte, og at lykke i prinsippet er oppnåelig for alle. Etikkens grunnprinsipp er størst mulig lykke for flest mulig. Dette er bakgrunnen for den retning innen økonomi og økonomisk politikk som kalles utilitarisme. Det er verd å merke seg at Mill også mente at det er bedre å være en misfornøyd Sokrates enn en tilfreds narr. Gir man ham rett betyr det at lykke har både et kvalitativt og et kvantitativt aspekt og at utilitarismen slik den har utviklet seg med vekt på det kvantitative, ikke er tilstrekkelig for å oppnå lykke.Nyere undersøkelser viser at opplevelse av behag alene ikke slår positivt ut på produktivitet. Men det har lenge vært klart at opplevelsen av ubehag og smerte slår klart negativt ut i de fleste tilfeller, og særlig over tid. Praktisk utilitaristisk politikk tok da også etter hvert dette som utgangspunkt: Å unngå smerte og ubehag for flest mulig. Men dette oppfyller neppe Mills etiske grunnprinsipp, ei heller både kvalitative og kvantitative aspekter ved lykke. 

2)     Eudaimonisme. Epikur og Aristoteles er opphav til dette begrepet. Aristoteles mente at lykke oppnås gjennom engasjement, handling, utfoldelse, vennskap og samvær med andre. Han hevdet videre at lykke ikke er oppnåelig for alle og at for eksempel kvinner og barn neppe kan oppnå det. Men det var tross alt i et samfunn ca. 2350 år før vårt at Aristoteles hevdet dette. La meg forresten nevne at først ca. 2200 år senere var Mill en pioner i arbeidet med å bedre kvinners situasjon i samfunnet. Og bare ca. 100 år før dette hadde Rousseau revolusjonert vårt syn på barnet og dets situasjon i sitt berømte hovedverk om Emile. Dette gir unektelig et visst perspektiv på hvem som historisk har hatt definisjonsmakt og kontroll over premissdannelsen for begrepene lykke og produktivitet nesten helt frem til vår tid. Det bør vi ikke helt glemme i alt vårt moderne strev for å kartlegge forutsetningene for både trivsel og produktivitet i samfunnet.Vel, moderne forskning viser i alle fall at engasjement, handling og utfoldelse slår positivt ut på produktivitet uansett kjønn og alder. Videre finnes det belegg for at høy produktivitet kan skape trivsel når folk ser sammenhengen mellom egen mestring, felles innsats og produktivitet, forutsatt at innsatsen ikke presses utover smertegrensen over tid, for da rakner både trivsel og produktivitet. Moderne forskning viser også at indre motiverte mennesker ofte er mer engasjert og utfolder seg ofte mer aktivt enne andre, derfor har indre motivasjon en klar indirekte effekt på produktivitet. Det er interessant å merke seg dette i en tid da stimulering av ytre motivasjon på bekostning av, ja til og med til skade for indre motivasjon, brer om seg i samfunns- og arbeidsliv.

Et nyere begrep beslektet med lykke, som brukes mye innen idrett, men som også er på vei inn i arbeidslivet, er flyt. Jeg vil legge til at flyt også kan oppleves meget sterkt i tilknytning til musikkutøvelse og annen kunstnerisk utfoldelse. Vi mangler ennå tilstrekkelig konsise begreper til å kunne forstå, analysere og klassifisere flytopplevelsen, men den kan beskrives som en ekstrem, ofte kortvarig lykkefølelse: ”a peak experience”. Trolig har den elementer av både hedonia og eudaimonia. I alle fall kan den ha med prestasjon, mestring og mestringsopplevelse å gjøre, og dermed også med produktivitet.

3)     Egosentrisitet: Selvopptatthet, å være seg selv nok, oportunisme og oportunistisk atferd. Hedonia i utpreget grad hevdes å medføre dette. I slike fall er  jo hedonia en mer enn tvilsom vei til lykke, ja en ren avsporing vil jeg si.

4)     Narsissisme: Selvkjærlighet, ekstrem selvopptatthet. Begrepet er hentet fra det greske sagnet om den vakre Narkissos, som ble forelsket i sitt eget speilbilde. I psykologien betegner narsissisme en fiksering og tilbakevending til barnets tidlige utviklingstrinn hvor det ennå ikke har utviklet evnen til å se verdien av sin omverden og det selv oppfattes som kilden til all lystopplevelse. Innen ledelsesforskning er narsissisme omfattet med økende interesse som en av de mest utbredte kilder til  dysfunksjonell ledelse. Det gjelder både kvinner og menn. 

5)     Altruisme: Uselviskhet, uselvisk atferd, å være opptatt av andres og fellesskapets ve og vel, like mye eller mer enn av sitt eget. Eudaimonia har elementer i seg som kan disponere for dette. Dermed kan Eudaimonia være synergiskapende og underbygge produktivitet i arbeidslivet. Men Eudaimonia kan også innebære egosentrisitet og narsissisme. Oportunistisk og selvnytende engasjement, handling og utfoldelse er kontraproduktivt i arbeidslivet som i de fleste andre sosiale sammenhenger. Det er også viktig å være klar over at altruisme ikke er det samme som selvutslettelse, som jo også er en ytterst tvilsom vei til lykke.

6)     Etikk: Dette begrepet er omfattende og komplisert, og jeg skal ikke gå nærmere inn på det her enn jeg allerede har gjort. Men viktige deler av det kan forstås som streben etter balanse i og mellom eudaimonia og hedonia. Yte og nyte som grunnlag for menneskelig lykke.  Og her er egosentrisitet, narsissisme og altruisme nødvendige tilleggsdimensjoner for forståelsen. Alle  begrepene som er omtalt foran er erkjent å ha mye med produktivitet å gjøre, og innsatsen for mer presis begrepsdannelse, analyse og forskning på dem er for tiden økende. Følgelig er også etikk i høy grad analyse- og forskningsverdig i produktivitetssammenheng. Et visst kjønnsperspektiv er det nok også klokt å ha med seg videre i alt dette. Hedonia, eudaimonia og flytopplevelser i samvær mellom kvinner, menn og barn kan for eksempel neppe avskrives som irrelevant for produktiviteten i et moderne samfunn.                                                                                                                      3/3-10 Knut Wollebæk


Kommentarliste
13 kommentarer til "TRIVSEL OG PRODUKTIVITET I FILOSOFISK PERSPEKTIV"


1 / 13   Forfatter: JessieDug
04/12/2017 21:00
A Biological Masterpiece, But Subject to Many Ills
The human foot is a biological masterpiece. Its strong, flexible, and functional design enables it to do its job well and without complaint—if you take care of it and don't take it for granted.
healthThe foot can be compared to a finely tuned race car, or a space shuttle, vehicles whose function dictates their design and structure. And like them, the human foot is complex, containing within its relatively small size 26 bones (the two feet contain a quarter of all the bones in the body), 33 joints, and a network of more than 100 tendons, muscles, and ligaments, to say nothing of blood vessels and nerves.
<a href=https://www.cialissansordonnancefr24.com/cialis-toronto/>https://www.cialissansordonnancefr24.com/cialis-toronto/</a>
2 / 13   Forfatter: Robertveich
01/12/2017 13:19
Doctor Who is now considered a British Institute and has come a long way since it first aired on November 23rd 1963. The very first show saw the Doctor travel 100,00 years into the past to help some dim cavemen discover light. After 26 seasons and seven Doctors later the series came off our screens in 1989 much to the disappointment of the huge devoted fanbase. In 1996 an attempt was made to revive Doctor Who but it wasnt until June 2005 when it came back with a vengeance with Christopher Eccleston as the ninth Doctor that put the series back on the map as it were. It then went on for 5 years with David Tenant portraying the Doctor until 2010 when Matt Smith took over the role. Today it is still a great family show and has attracted many new fans.
<a href=https://www.cialissansordonnancefr24.com/achat-cialis-5mg-en-ligne/>https://www.cialissansordonnancefr24.com/achat-cialis-5mg-en-ligne/</a>
3 / 13   Forfatter: Philipdap
28/11/2017 17:55
ome people, especially those running on busy daily schedules tend to use the pills to help maintain weight since they can not afford to follow all the diet programs. This is not advised. It is recommended that one seek advice from a professional in this field before using the pills. This can save one from many dangers associated with the misuse.

The diet pills should always be taken whole. Some people tend to divide the pills to serve a longer period of time. This is not advised and can lead to ineffectiveness. If it is required that one takes a complete tablet, it means that a certain amount of the ingredients are required to achieve the desired goal. It is also recommended that one does not crush the pill and dissolve it in beverages. Chemicals found in beverages have the potential of neutralizing the desired nutrients in the pill thereby leading to ineffectiveness. The best way to take the tablets is swallowing them whole with a glass of water.

<a href=https://www.cialissansordonnancefr24.com/viagra-cialis-ou-levitra-prix/>https://www.cialissansordonnancefr24.com/viagra-cialis-ou-levitra-prix/</a>
4 / 13   Forfatter: RichardDoola
14/11/2017 11:58
Doctors have many challenges to face as they are perennially surrounded by patients, diseases, hospital duties and over-extended or odd shift timings. Universally, doctor is considered to be a noble profession and respectable one at that, but a doctor also has to work under immense pressures, emotional strains and other physical challenges.


A regular physician like most of us at some point face will have to deal with personal situations such as important family affairs, family holidays, sickness or pregnancy that may force them to abandon medical duties. At the same time, a hospital or a healthcare facility is also constantly faced with emergency situations that demand all hands on deck round-the-clock. Therefore, every hospital, clinic or nursing home is compelled to hire locum tenens or substitute doctor in order to keep the staffing under control at all times.


In fact, locum doctors are the most valuable asset for the medical community because they provide quality medical care and act as a helping-hand in emergency situations when the medical facilities need them the most.

Unlike regular or permanent doctors, locum doctor jobs are also ideal career options for medical interns and graduates because they offer a wide array of medical exposure in varied medical specialties, work cultures and healthcare systems. Locum jobs are challenging and flexible, thus an increasing number of medical professionals have benefitted from these jobs, so whether one is looking for a family physicians position or in a hospital or in a clinic, locum jobs for doctors are available at all levels and in different healthcare systems.


In addition, being a locum doctor gives a medical professional the control over their working hours, location of work and choice of area of specialisation. Technically, locum positions are not restricted to general physicians but they are also extended to other fields of medical specialisations such as cardiology, neurology and many more.

Travelling can be an integral part of locum jobs, and these distinctive features are a boon for many dedicated medical professionals who are eager to expand their medical careers with loads of multi-cultural medical experiences. The fact that locum agencies in the UK recruit tens of thousands of locums from across the globe in various NHS hospitals, private clinics, nursing homes and other public hospitals speaks volume of the popularity of locum jobs.


Locating or getting a locum tenens job is a simple task as long as you are registered with one of the many reputable locum agencies. These agencies act as the middle man between locum tenens and medical facilities, and they also look after all the details pertaining to travel for locum tenens, accommodation and the nature of locum work.

Thus, maintaining a healthy locum doctor-agency relationship benefits both the parties, and it also increases the probability of getting recommendable employment opportunities and businesses or vice-versa.
5 / 13   Forfatter: Felixnab
11/10/2017 19:14
Writing a medical thesis or dissertation is a task done by almost all postgraduate and master's medical students. Dissertation is derived from the Latin word disserto which means discuss. It is essential to write successful medical papers such as medicine essays and medical thesis papers. There are several reasons as to why students write medicine essays. One of the reasons is to promote enhancement of critical judgment, research skills as well as analytical skills. Moreover, medicine essay writing produce students with the ability to 4evaluate and analyze data critically.

The initial step for writing medicine essays is to choose a topic. A writer should have at least three topics to choose from. The topic has to be interesting, feasible and relevant. It is essential to write quality medicine essay. Hence, students need to have analytical skills and perfect writing skills. The writing skills will enable them write outstanding essay papers that can be highly regarded by instructors and professors. Teachers often require a lot and expect a lot from their students in terms of medicine essay writing. for this reason, students find essay writing to be an extremely difficult task and hence resort to buying custom medicine essays.

A custom medicine essay has to be written by professional writers who are qualified in the field of nursing. Moreover, the custom medicine essay has to be original and plagiarism free. This means that it has to be written from scratch by experts with many years experience. The many years experience should enable a writer to write any form of medical paper including medical thesis, medicine essay and even medicine research paper. Moreover, experience will enable a writer to write a medicine essay that can guarantee academic success.

Students get custom medicine essays from custom writing company. It is essential to choose the best company so that one can get the best custom medicine essay. The best and the most reliable medicine essay writing company should have some unique characteristics such as affordability and the ability to provide original and superior quality medicine essays. The other quality is that the company has to hire expert writers who can write quality medicine essays and other types of medical papers. The essays should not only be quality but also plagiarism free and free of grammatical and spelling mistakes.

A custom medicine essay has a similar structure to any other academic essay assignment. It has an introduction that introduces the topic and tells the reader what the essay is all about. The second section is the body that has many paragraphs supporting the main topic. Finally there is the conclusion that briefly summarizes what has been discussed in the body section of the essay. Students should choose reliable writing companies so that they can get quality custom papers on several fields such as technology, sociology and law in addition to medicine field.

Our custom writing company is the best company that all clients should rely on when in need of any given type of medicine paper. We provide quality papers that not only plagiarism free but also original. Moreover, our custom papers are affordable and able to guarantee academic excellence at all times. All our medical papers are reliable and sure of satisfying clients at all times.

 
6 / 13   Forfatter: Caseyphefe
08/10/2017 10:24
Some people, especially those running on busy daily schedules tend to use the pills to help maintain weight since they can not afford to follow all the diet programs. This is not advised. It is recommended that one seek advice from a professional in this field before using the pills. This can save one from many dangers associated with the misuse.

The diet pills should always be taken whole. Some people tend to divide the pills to serve a longer period of time. This is not advised and can lead to ineffectiveness. If it is required that one takes a complete tablet, it means that a certain amount of the ingredients are required to achieve the desired goal. It is also recommended that one does not crush the pill and dissolve it in beverages. Chemicals found in beverages have the potential of neutralizing the desired nutrients in the pill thereby leading to ineffectiveness. The best way to take the tablets is swallowing them whole with a glass of water.

The diet pills speed up the metabolic processes. This is the key factor that leads to the burning of all the fats in the body. This means that one passes out lots of urine, which subsequently leads to dehydration. It is imperative that the user take lots of water round the clock. This will help curb dehydration, which can lead to health problems. In addition to that, water offers the required medium for the function of the nutrients and elimination of the fats.

When buying the review of diet pills, it is imperative that one gets the most recommended dose. People tend to compromise the quality and effectiveness of the tablets due to the variation in cost. The low priced pills depict poor quality, which means their effectiveness is not reliable. Some have also been found to cause health problems. The dose should also be taken as recommended. Over dose will not speed up the process but rather lead to complication. This will increase risk of side effects. If the taking of the pill is forgotten, do not take more to compensate for the lost time.

The diet plan enclosed with the diet pills has also to be followed. According to the requirements, the termination of the diet must be done even with no results. This means your body is irresponsive.
7 / 13   Forfatter: TerryBoume
03/10/2017 06:54
Writing doctoral dissertation is a prerequisite before a PhD degree conferred to you. It usually entails conducting some form of research. Dissertation writing is therefore not among the simplest form of writing you will come across. Dissertation writing process will normally begin by selecting of a topic or a concept. The topic should be on a relevant field and that which would lead to development of new knowledge in the field. While selecting a topic for dissertation writing, ensures that your topic is simple, realistic and attainable. After you have decided on a topic, you need to embark on writing a dissertation proposal. A dissertation proposal is a detailed work plan that provides specific details on how your dissertation project will be conducted. The proposal should contain; an introduction of the topic, the problem statement of your dissertation, objectives, research questions and hypothesis of your study and research methods you plan on using. A proposal in dissertation writing should also contain a literature review. A literature review is a detailed analysis of what other authors have said about your topic of study. The dissertation proposal should also include a work schedule and a budget plan for your dissertation project. After writing your proposal the next step is the collection and analysis of data. There are many approaches for collecting and analyzing data and the choice of these will dependent on the study. Then next is the actual dissertation writing. Dissertation papers should contain all those details included in the proposals. It should also encompass chapters that present the results and finding of the study. Dissertation writing should follow specific structure and style of formatting. This again will vary depending on your study type, institution or field of study. This process of dissertation writing consumes a lot of time and requires a lot of expertise and experience. These sometimes present a challenge to many students when it comes to dissertation writing. We are now providing dissertation writing services. We are offering dissertation papers for a variety of academic fields including; history, sciences, business, psychology and literature among many others. We have highly experienced writers who are also experts in dissertation writing. These dissertation writers are all PhD graduates who have years of practice in writing and have never disappointed when it comes to writing dissertation papers. Our writers will ensure that all the standards for your dissertation writing are adhered to. Though some standard requirement will vary from one dissertation papers to the other, there are some dissertation writing standard requirements that apply to all dissertation papers. One of them is the use of correct language, sentences, spelling and punctuations. Errors committed in such areas my completely alter what you intended to communicate in your dissertations. Another requirement is that your dissertation papers should be original and plagiarism free. To ensure that our papers remain 100 percent original and non-plagiarized we have instructed our writers to always start the writing process from scratch. We also scan all our papers using plagiarism checking software before we hand them over to our client. When you purchase our dissertation writing services, you receive papers that are guaranteed to satisfy your individual needs. This is because all our dissertation papers are custom written which ensures that we are able to adhere to our customers' concerns and focus in meeting their expectations. Our dissertation writing services are also available at affordable prices.
8 / 13   Forfatter: Jefferyral
02/10/2017 02:13
No matter how happy people may be with their life, stress may find its way in. Sometimes stress is so hard to control because people do not know how to go about fixing their stresses. In the following article, you are going to be given advice to help you deal with life's stresses.

<a href=https://www.acheterviagrafr24.com/achat-sildenafil-mylan-avis/>achat sildenafil mylan avis</a>
9 / 13   Forfatter: AngeloJaw
01/10/2017 16:03
As you will inevitably learn on your path to losing weight, effective weight loss is not only about watching what you eat, but much more about changing your lifestyle. This means changing your habits and how you approach your day-to-day life. Read this information to help you throughout the process.
10 / 13   Forfatter: Caseyphefe
07/09/2017 22:40
<a href=https://www.viagrapascherfr.com/>Show more...</a>
11 / 13   Forfatter: Charlesjes
31/08/2017 15:11
<a href=https://www.viagrapascherfr.com/>Click here>>></a>
12 / 13   Forfatter: LelandDosse
31/08/2017 04:32
301 Moved Permanently
<a href=https://www.viagrapascherfr.com/>Show more!</a>
13 / 13   Forfatter: Janne Sveen
09/10/2013 11:04
Hei Knut,
Interessant artikkel
Hilsen Janne
Legg inn din kommentar
(Obligatorisk)
(Blir ikke publisert Obligatorisk)
(Skriv det du ser i den blå boksen)


Ilko  © 2015